Protamine Sulfate Enhances Biofilm Inhibitory Activity of Curcumin against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Grown on Ex Vivo Porcine Skin Model
Keywords:Biofilm, Curcumin, Protamine sulfate, Quorum sensing inhibitors, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A bacterial biofilm is one of the most difficult structures to eradicate and is involved in the enhancement of the virulence and resistance of bacteria. Several strategies have been used to fight bacterial virulence and biofilm formation through targeting the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism of communication. Curcumin is a natural component extract from Turmeric and has antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) effects on many microbes and their biofilm. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin-protamine sulfate combination against the biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Neither the curcumin nor the protamine sulfate exhibited antibiofilm activity when tested against the P .aeruginosa biofilm alone. However, when curcumin was combined with protamine sulfate at different concentrations, a significant reduction in biofilm formation was detected. The highest inhibition percentage was detected against 48 hour biofilm when the biofilm was treated with 62.5 µg/ml curcumin with 62.5 µg/ml protamine sulfate using the 96-well plate method. The porcine ex-vivo model was used to confirm the previous result. The highest inhibition of biofilm was 95% when the porcine skin was treated with 500 µg/ml of curcumin with 500 µg/ml protamine sulfate. The obtained results from this study highly suggest that the combination of curcumin with protamine sulfate improves the effect against the biofilm, and ensures that the effect is due to the prevention of biofilm formation mainly through interruption of QS rather than killing of the bacteria.
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